\ 苹果等四大科技巨头被指实施垄断 美众议院16个月调查揭露了这些
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苹果等四大科技巨头被指实施垄断 美众议院16个月调查揭露了这些

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苹果等四大科技巨头被指实施垄断 美众议院16个月调查揭露了这些

据华尔街日报中文网报道,在经过个月的调查后,民主党领导的众议院反垄断小组委员会发布报告称,美国最大的几家科技公司已利用自身的优势地位压制竞争、扼杀创新,并......苹果等四大科技巨头被指实施垄断 美众议院16个月调查揭露了这些

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据[ju]华[hua]尔[er]街[jie]日[ri]报[bao]中[zhong]文[wen]网[wang]报[bao]道[dao],在[zai]经[jing]过[guo]个[ge]月[yue]的[de]调[diao]查[cha]后[hou],民[min]主[zhu]党[dang]领[ling]导[dao]的[de]众[zhong]议[yi]院[yuan]反[fan]垄[long]断[duan]小[xiao]组[zu]委[wei]员[yuan]会[hui]发[fa]布[bu]报[bao]告[gao]称[chen],美[mei]国[guo]最[zui]大[da]的[de]几[ji]家[jia]科[ke]技[ji]公[gong]司[si]已[yi]利[li]用[yong]自[zi]身[shen]的[de]优[you]势[shi]地[di]位[wei]压[ya]制[zhi]竞[jing]争[zheng]、扼[e]杀[sha]创[chuang]新[xin],并[bing]呼[hu]吁[yu]国[guo]会[hui]考[kao]虑[lv]强[qiang]制[zhi]科[ke]技[ji]巨[ju]头[tou]将[jiang]其[qi]占[zhan]主[zhu]导[dao]地[di]位[wei]的[de]在[zai]线[xian]平[ping]台[tai]与[yu]其[qi]他[ta]业[ye]务[wu]分[fen]开[kai]。

众[zhong]议[yi]院[yuan]反[fan]垄[long]断[duan]小[xiao]组[zu]委[wei]员[yuan]会[hui]的[de]民[min]主[zhu]党[dang]工[gong]作[zuo]人[ren]员[yuan]在[zai]结[jie]束[shu]了[liao]对[dui]亚[ya]马[ma]逊[xun]公[gong]司[si]、Facebook、Alphabet旗[qi]下[xia]谷[gu]歌[ge]、苹[ping]果[guo]公[gong]司[si]市[shi]场[chang]影[ying]响[xiang]力[li]长[chang]达[da]个[ge]月[yue]的[de]调[diao]查[cha]后[hou],于[yu]周[zhou]二[er]发[fa]布[bu]了[liao]这[zhe]份[fen]报[bao]告[gao]。

Facebook在[zai]一[yi]份[fen]声[sheng]明[ming]中[zhong]表[biao]示[shi],Instagram和[he]WhatsApp达[da]到[dao]了[liao]成[cheng]功[gong]的[de]新[xin]高[gao]度[du],因[yin]为[wei]Facebook在[zai]这[zhe]些[xie]业[ye]务[wu]上[shang]投[tou]入[ru]了[liao]数[shu]以[yi]十[shi]亿[yi]美[mei]元[yuan]计[ji]的[de]资[zi]金[jin]。Facebook 称[chen],对[dui]Instagram和[he]WhatsApp进[jin]行[xing]收[shou]购[gou]时[shi]都[du]存[cun]在[zai]着[zhou]激[ji]烈[lie]的[de]竞[jing]争[zheng]格[ge]局[ju],现[xian]在[zai]也[ye]是[shi]如[ru]此[ci]。

据[ju]《华[hua]尔[er]街[jie]日[ri]报[bao]》报[bao]道[dao],Facebook正[zheng]面[mian]临[lin]美[mei]国[guo]联[lian]邦[bang]贸[mao]易[yi]委[wei]员[yuan]会[hui](FTC)的[de]反[fan]垄[long]断[duan]调[diao]查[cha],该[gai]委[wei]员[yuan]会[hui]正[zheng]准[zhun]备[bei]一[yi]桩[zhuang]潜[qian]在[zai]的[de]诉[su]讼[song]。预[yu]计[ji]谷[gu]歌[ge]也[ye]将[jiang]成[cheng]为[wei]美[mei]国[guo]司[si]法[fa]部[bu]今[jin]年[nian]秋[qiu]天[tian]将[jiang]提[ti]起[qi]的[de]反[fan]垄[long]断[duan]诉[su]讼[song]的[de]对[dui]象[xiang]。

亚[ya]马[ma]逊[xun]对[dui]该[gai]报[bao]告[gao]的[de]结[jie]论[lun]提[ti]出[chu]异[yi]议[yi]。亚[ya]马[ma]逊[xun]在[zai]一[yi]篇[pian]博[bo]客[ke]文[wen]章[zhang]中[zhong]表[biao]示[shi]:“所[suo]有[you]大[da]型[xing]组[zu]织[zhi]都[du]会[hui]吸[xi]引[yin]监[jian]管[guan]机[ji]构[gou]的[de]注[zhu]意[yi],我[wo]们[men]欢[huan]迎[ying]这[zhe]种[zhong]审[shen]视[shi]。但[dan]大[da]公[gong]司[si]未[wei]必[bi]一[yi]定[ding]占[zhan]主[zhu]导[dao]地[di]位[wei],认[ren]为[wei]成[cheng]功[gong]只[zhi]可[ke]能[nen]源[yuan]于[yu]反[fan]竞[jing]争[zheng]行[xing]为[wei]的[de]假[jia]设[she]是[shi]完[wan]全[quan]错[cuo]误[wu]的[de]。”

谷[gu]歌[ge]在[zai]一[yi]份[fen]声[sheng]明[ming]中[zhong]表[biao]示[shi],该[gai]公[gong]司[si]不[bu]认[ren]可[ke]调[diao]查[cha]结[jie]果[guo],称[chen]其[qi]中[zhong]“含[han]有[you]来[lai]自[zi]商[shang]业[ye]竞[jing]争[zheng]对[dui]手[shou]的[de]过[guo]时[shi]和[he]不[bu]准[zhun]确[que]的[de]指[zhi]控[kong]”。

谷[gu]歌[ge]称[chen]:“美[mei]国[guo]人[ren]肯[ken]定[ding]不[bu]希[xi]望[wang]国[guo]会[hui]拆[chai]散[san]谷[gu]歌[ge]的[de]产[chan]品[pin]或[huo]损[sun]害[hai]他[ta]们[men]每[mei]天[tian]使[shi]用[yong]的[de]免[mian]费[fei]服[fu]务[wu]。”

苹[ping]果[guo]公[gong]司[si]对[dui]该[gai]报[bao]告[gao]的[de]结[jie]果[guo]提[ti]出[chu]异[yi]议[yi]。苹[ping]果[guo]公[gong]司[si]发[fa]言[yan]人[ren]在[zai]声[sheng]明[ming]中[zhong]称[chen]:“我[wo]们[men]已[yi]经[jing]一[yi]再[zai]宣[xuan]称[chen]审[shen]查[cha]是[shi]合[he]理[li]和[he]恰[qia]当[dang]的[de],但[dan]我[wo]们[men]强[qiang]烈[lie]反[fan]对[dui]这[zhe]份[fen]工[gong]作[zuo]人[ren]员[yuan]报[bao]告[gao]中[zhong]关[guan]于[yu]苹[ping]果[guo]公[gong]司[si]的[de]那[na]部[bu]分[fen]结[jie]论[lun]。”该[gai]发[fa]言[yan]人[ren]表[biao]示[shi]:“苹[ping]果[guo]公[gong]司[si]在[zai]所[suo]开[kai]展[zhan]的[de]任[ren]何[he]业[ye]务[wu]类[lei]别[bie]中[zhong]都[du]未[wei]拥[yong]有[you]占[zhan]据[ju]主[zhu]导[dao]地[di]位[wei]的[de]市[shi]场[chang]份[fen]额[e]。”

民[min]主[zhu]党[dang]的[de]这[zhe]份[fen]报[bao]告[gao]指[zhi]出[chu],上[shang]述[shu]四[si]家[jia]公[gong]司[si]都[du]实[shi]施[shi]了[liao]垄[long]断[duan],并[bing]批[pi]评[ping]美[mei]国[guo]反[fan]垄[long]断[duan]执[zhi]法[fa]机[ji]构[gou]未[wei]能[nen]遏[e]制[zhi]这[zhe]些[xie]公[gong]司[si]的[de]主[zhu]导[dao]地[di]位[wei]。

报[bao]道[dao]称[chen],这[zhe]份[fen]长[chang]达[da]页[ye]的[de]报[bao]告[gao]称[chen]:“这[zhe]些[xie]公[gong]司[si]拥[yong]有[you]太[tai]大[da]的[de]权[quan]力[li],这[zhe]种[zhong]权[quan]力[li]必[bi]须[xu]受[shou]到[dao]控[kong]制[zhi],并[bing]接[jie]受[shou]恰[qia]当[dang]的[de]监[jian]督[du]和[he]执[zhi]法[fa]。”报[bao]告[gao]说[shuo]道[dao]:“我[wo]们[men]的[de]经[jing]济[ji]和[he]民[min]主[zhu]都[du]面[mian]临[lin]危[wei]险[xian]。”

报[bao]道[dao]还[huai]称[chen],该[gai]报[bao]告[gao]概[gai]述[shu]了[liao]国[guo]会[hui]可[ke]以[yi]采[cai]取[qu]的[de]一[yi]系[xi]列[lie]应[ying]对[dui]措[cuo]施[shi],包[bao]括[kuo]进[jin]行[xing]立[li]法[fa]以[yi]迫[po]使[shi]至[zhi]少[shao]部[bu]分[fen]上[shang]述[shu]公[gong]司[si]将[jiang]某[mou]些[xie]占[zhan]主[zhu]导[dao]地[di]位[wei]的[de]在[zai]线[xian]平[ping]台[tai]与[yu]其[qi]他[ta]业[ye]务[wu]分[fen]开[kai],以[yi]及[ji]修[xiu]改[gai]反[fan]垄[long]断[duan]法[fa]来[lai]改[gai]变[bian]这[zhe]个[ge]被[bei]认[ren]为[wei]缺[que]乏[fa]强[qiang]力[li]执[zhi]法[fa]的[de]局[ju]面[mian]。

报[bao]道[dao]援[yuan]引[yin]投[tou]行[xing]Cowen Inc.的[de]分[fen]析[xi]师[shi]Paul Galla表[biao]示[shi]:“这[zhe]份[fen]报[bao]告[gao]可[ke]能[nen]最[zui]终[zhong]成[cheng]为[wei]反[fan]垄[long]断[duan]和[he]科[ke]技[ji]领[ling]域[yu]的[de]一[yi]个[ge]转[zhuan]折[zhe]点[dian]。”他[ta]说[shuo]:“这[zhe]为[wei]明[ming]年[nian]推[tui]进[jin]立[li]法[fa]创[chuang]造[zao]了[liao]动[dong]力[li],还[huai]可[ke]能[nen]推[tui]动[dong]监[jian]管[guan]机[ji]构[gou]在[zai]知[zhi]晓[xiao]自[zi]身[shen]拥[yong]有[you]国[guo]会[hui]支[zhi]持[chi]的[de]情[qing]况[kuang]下[xia],即[ji]使[shi]是[shi]依[yi]据[ju]现[xian]有[you]法[fa]律[lv]条[tiao]文[wen]也[ye]要[yao]提[ti]起[qi]诉[su]讼[song]。”

报[bao]道[dao]称[chen],报[bao]告[gao]得[de]出[chu]的[de]结[jie]论[lun]是[shi],亚[ya]马[ma]逊[xun]拥[yong]有[you]凌[ling]驾[jia]于[yu]第[di]三[san]方[fang]卖[mai]家[jia]之[zhi]上[shang]的[de]垄[long]断[duan]权[quan],不[bu]公[gong]正[zheng]地[di]对[dui]待[dai]零[ling]售[shou]合[he]作[zuo]伙[huo]伴[ban],并[bing]且[qie]不[bu]正[zheng]当[dang]地[di]使[shi]用[yong]第[di]三[san]方[fang]数[shu]据[ju]为[wei]其[qi]电[dian]商[shang]平[ping]台[tai]上[shang]的[de]自[zi]有[you]品[pin]牌[pai]产[chan]品[pin]的[de]销[xiao]售[shou]战[zhan]略[lue]提[ti]供[gong]情[qing]报[bao]。

上[shang]述[shu]委[wei]员[yuan]会[hui]的[de]立[li]法[fa]提[ti]案[an]可[ke]能[nen]导[dao]致[zhi]亚[ya]马[ma]逊[xun]退[tui]出[chu]这[zhe]项[xiang]业[ye]务[wu]和[he]其[qi]他[ta]一[yi]些[xie]业[ye]务[wu],这[zhe]将[jiang]是[shi]一[yi]个[ge]重[zhong]大[da]打[da]击[ji]。这[zhe]家[jia]科[ke]技[ji]巨[ju]头[tou]已[yi]经[jing]开[kai]发[fa]了[liao]超[chao]过[guo]万[wan]个[ge]自[zi]有[you]品[pin]牌[pai]产[chan]品[pin],并[bing]在[zai]家[jia]用[yong]设[she]备[bei]领[ling]域[yu]进[jin]行[xing]了[liao]重[zhong]大[da]投[tou]资[zi],例[li]如[ru]Echo扬[yang]声[sheng]器[qi]。

今[jin]年[nian]月[yue],《华[hua]尔[er]街[jie]日[ri]报[bao]》报[bao]道[dao]称[chen],亚[ya]马[ma]逊[xun]的[de]自[zi]有[you]品[pin]牌[pai]部[bu]门[men]员[yuan]工[gong]利[li]用[yong]个[ge]别[bie]第[di]三[san]方[fang]数[shu]据[ju]来[lai]开[kai]发[fa]自[zi]己[ji]的[de]产[chan]品[pin]。上[shang]述[shu]委[wei]员[yuan]会[hui]在[zai]与[yu]亚[ya]马[ma]逊[xun]员[yuan]工[gong]的[de]谈[tan]话[hua]中[zhong]也[ye]发[fa]现[xian]了[liao]类[lei]似[si]行[xing]为[wei]。

此[ci]外[wai],这[zhe]份[fen]报[bao]告[gao]还[huai]披[pi]露[lu]了[liao]谷[gu]歌[ge]在[zai]搜[sou]索[suo]行[xing]业[ye]的[de]主[zhu]导[dao]地[di]位[wei],在[zai]这[zhe]一[yi]领[ling]域[yu],谷[gu]歌[ge]控[kong]制[zhi]着[zhou]%的[de]桌[zhuo]面[mian]搜[sou]索[suo]和[he]%以[yi]上[shang]的[de]移[yi]动[dong]搜[sou]索[suo]。

该[gai]小[xiao]组[zu]委[wei]员[yuan]会[hui]将[jiang]这[zhe]种[zhong]现[xian]象[xiang]归[gui]因[yin]于[yu]谷[gu]歌[ge]每[mei]年[nian]向[xiang]苹[ping]果[guo]和[he]火[huo]狐[hu]等[deng]公[gong]司[si]支[zhi]付[fu]数[shu]十[shi]亿[yi]美[mei]元[yuan]的[de]能[nen]力[li],这[zhe]让[rang]谷[gu]歌[ge]即[ji]使[shi]在[zai]竞[jing]争[zheng]对[dui]手[shou]的[de]浏[liu]览[lan]器[qi]上[shang]也[ye]能[nen]保[bao]持[chi]其[qi]首[shou]选[xuan]地[di]位[wei]。

另[ling]外[wai],针[zhen]对[dui]谷[gu]歌[ge]对[dui]其[qi]搜[sou]索[suo]引[yin]擎[qing]做[zuo]出[chu]调[diao]整[zheng],将[jiang]搜[sou]索[suo]结[jie]果[guo]直[zhi]接[jie]显[xian]示[shi]在[zai]搜[sou]索[suo]页[ye]面[mian]顶[ding]部[bu]而[er]不[bu]再[zai]显[xian]示[shi]传[chuan]统[tong]网[wang]络[luo]搜[sou]索[suo]结[jie]果[guo]的[de]做[zuo]法[fa],企[qi]业[ye]很[hen]早[zao]就[jiu]有[you]怨[yuan]言[yan],指[zhi]责[ze]谷[gu]歌[ge]的[de]做[zuo]法[fa]会[hui]导[dao]致[zhi]其[qi]他[ta]网[wang]站[zhan]流[liu]量[liang]损[sun]失[shi],造[zao]成[cheng]严[yan]重[zhong]打[da]击[ji],众[zhong]议[yi]院[yuan]小[xiao]组[zu]委[wei]员[yuan]会[hui]的[de]最[zui]新[xin]发[fa]现[xian]也[ye]呼[hu]应[ying]了[liao]这[zhe]种[zhong]指[zhi]责[ze]。

一[yi]位[wei]网[wang]站[zhan]所[suo]有[you]者[zhe]告[gao]诉[su]该[gai]小[xiao]组[zu]委[wei]员[yuan]会[hui]:“仅[jin]仅[jin]动[dong]动[dong]手[shou]指[zhi],谷[gu]歌[ge]就[jiu]把[ba]我[wo]们[men]的[de]原[yuan]创[chuang]内[na]容[rong]变[bian]成[cheng]了[liao]它[ta]自[zi]己[ji]的[de]内[na]容[rong]。”

该[gai]报[bao]告[gao]认[ren]为[wei],苹[ping]果[guo]公[gong]司[si]能[nen]施[shi]加[jia]垄[long]断[duan]影[ying]响[xiang]力[li],因[yin]为[wei]该[gai]公[gong]司[si]控[kong]制[zhi]着[zhou]面[mian]向[xiang]美[mei]国[guo]过[guo]半[ban]移[yi]动[dong]设[she]备[bei]的[de]软[ruan]件[jian]分[fen]发[fa],并[bing]得[de]以[yi]从[cong]旗[qi]下[xia]App Store及[ji]服[fu]务[wu]业[ye]务[wu]中[zhong]获[huo]得[de]“超[chao]乎[hu]寻[xun]常[chang]的[de]利[li]润[run]”。

苹[ping]果[guo]公[gong]司[si]此[ci]前[qian]曾[zeng]表[biao]示[shi],为[wei]了[liao]管[guan]控[kong]用[yong]户[hu]体[ti]验[yan]的[de]质[zhi]量[liang],有[you]必[bi]要[yao]就[jiu]针[zhen]对[dui]其[qi]设[she]备[bei]的[de]移[yi]动[dong]应[ying]用[yong]销[xiao]售[shou]设[she]置[zhi]限[xian]制[zhi]。

关[guan]于[yu]苹[ping]果[guo]公[gong]司[si]对[dui]App Store的[de]控[kong]制[zhi],该[gai]小[xiao]组[zu]委[wei]员[yuan]会[hui]给[gei]出[chu]评[ping]估[gu]结[jie]论[lun]时[shi]措[cuo]辞[ci]严[yan]厉[li],称[chen]这[zhe]家[jia]iPhone生[sheng]产[chan]商[shang]利[li]用[yong]自[zi]身[shen]作[zuo]为[wei]守[shou]门[men]人[ren]的[de]影[ying]响[xiang]力[li]的[de]一[yi]些[xie]方[fang]式[shi],会[hui]损[sun]害[hai]第[di]三[san]方[fang]软[ruan]件[jian]开[kai]发[fa]者[zhe]的[de]利[li]益[yi],并[bing]在[zai]自[zi]己[ji]的[de]设[she]备[bei]上[shang]偏[pian]袒[tan]自[zi]家[jia]的[de]应[ying]用[yong]。

该[gai]报[bao]告[gao]还[huai]对[dui]Facebook有[you]关[guan]其[qi]应[ying]用[yong]可[ke]能[nen]永[yong]远[yuan]不[bu]能[nen]分[fen]拆[chai]的[de]说[shuo]法[fa]提[ti]出[chu]质[zhi]疑[yi]。

众[zhong]议[yi]院[yuan]反[fan]垄[long]断[duan]小[xiao]组[zu]委[wei]员[yuan]会[hui]的[de]共[gong]和[he]党[dang]人[ren]对[dui]该[gai]报[bao]告[gao]的[de]政[zheng]策[ce]建[jian]议[yi]意[yi]见[jian]不[bu]一[yi]。一[yi]些[xie]人[ren]认[ren]为[wei],美[mei]国[guo]的[de]反[fan]垄[long]断[duan]法[fa]不[bu]需[xu]要[yao]修[xiu]改[gai],而[er]另[ling]一[yi]些[xie]人[ren]则[ze]支[zhi]持[chi]民[min]主[zhu]党[dang]的[de]一[yi]些[xie]建[jian]议[yi]。科[ke]罗[luo]拉[la]多[duo]州[zhou]共[gong]和[he]党[dang]众[zhong]议[yi]员[yuan]Ken Buck表[biao]示[shi],反[fan]垄[long]断[duan]法[fa]需[xu]要[yao]更[geng]新[xin],但[dan]要[yao]使[shi]用[yong]手[shou]术[shu]刀[dao],而[er]不[bu]是[shi]链[lian]锯[ju],这[zhe]是[shi]非[fei]常[chang]重[zhong]要[yao]的[de]。

原标题:

苹果等四大科技巨头被指实施垄断 美众议院16个月调查揭露了这些

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