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美国国会公布反垄断调查报告,认定苹果、谷歌等四大科技公司滥用市场主导地位

简介:

美国国会公布反垄断调查报告,认定苹果、谷歌等四大科技公司滥用市场主导地位

苹果公司预计将在下周发布其最新一代具有G功能的iPhoe智能手机,这款重磅产品可能会促使比平时更多的消费者购买新设备。

苹果的成功故事是美国科......美国国会公布反垄断调查报告,认定苹果、谷歌等四大科技公司滥用市场主导地位

正文:

苹[ping]果[guo]公[gong]司[si]预[yu]计[ji]将[jiang]在[zai]下[xia]周[zhou]发[fa]布[bu]其[qi]最[zui]新[xin]一[yi]代[dai]具[ju]有[you]G功[gong]能[nen]的[de]iPhoe智[zhi]能[nen]手[shou]机[ji],这[zhe]款[kuan]重[zhong]磅[bang]产[chan]品[pin]可[ke]能[nen]会[hui]促[chun]使[shi]比[bi]平[ping]时[shi]更[geng]多[duo]的[de]消[xiao]费[fei]者[zhe]购[gou]买[mai]新[xin]设[she]备[bei]。

苹[ping]果[guo]的[de]成[cheng]功[gong]故[gu]事[shi]是[shi]美[mei]国[guo]科[ke]技[ji]公[gong]司[si]的[de]典[dian]范[fan],这[zhe]家[jia]市[shi]值[zhi]突[tu]破[po]万[wan]亿[yi]美[mei]元[yuan]的[de]公[gong]司[si],凭[ping]借[jie]着[zhou]全[quan]球[qiu]超[chao]过[guo]亿[yi]台[tai]iPhoe设[she]备[bei],掌[zhang]控[kong]着[zhou]手[shou]机[ji]操[cao]作[zuo]系[xi]统[tong]的[de]主[zhu]导[dao]地[di]位[wei]。

和[he]苹[ping]果[guo]公[gong]司[si]一[yi]样[yang],谷[gu]歌[ge]、亚[ya]马[ma]逊[xun]和[he]Faceook等[deng]科[ke]技[ji]巨[ju]头[tou],也[ye]都[du]依[yi]靠[kao]平[ping]台[tai]优[you]势[shi]迅[xun]速[su]占[zhan]据[ju]资[zi]源[yuan],并[bing]将[jiang]某[mou]一[yi]领[ling]域[yu]积[ji]累[lei]的[de]数[shu]据[ju]拓[tuo]展[zhan]到[dao]相[xiang]关[guan]业[ye]务[wu],从[cong]而[er]获[huo]得[de]竞[jing]争[zheng]优[you]势[shi]。

但[dan]近[jin]年[nian]来[lai]反[fan]垄[long]断[duan]呼[hu]声[sheng]高[gao]涨[zhang],科[ke]技[ji]巨[ju]头[tou]的[de]市[shi]场[chang]支[zhi]配[pei]地[di]位[wei]也[ye]饱[bao]受[shou]竞[jing]争[zheng]对[dui]手[shou]诟[gou]病[bing]。今[jin]年[nian]月[yue],游[you]戏[xi]引[yin]擎[qing]公[gong]司[si]Eic Game因[yin]不[bu]满[man]平[ping]台[tai]分[fen]成[cheng],对[dui]苹[ping]果[guo]和[he]谷[gu]歌[ge]发[fa]起[qi]诉[su]讼[song],正[zheng]式[shi]打[da]响[xiang]了[liao]开[kai]发[fa]者[zhe]反[fan]垄[long]断[duan]保[bao]卫[wei]战[zhan]dqo的[de]第[di]一[yi]枪[qiang]。

月[yue]日[ri]凌[ling]晨[chen],美[mei]国[guo]国[guo]会[hui]公[gong]布[bu]了[liao]一[yi]份[fen]针[zhen]对[dui]四[si]大[da]科[ke]技[ji]巨[ju]头[tou]的[de]反[fan]垄[long]断[duan]调[diao]查[cha]报[bao]告[gao],经[jing]过[guo]个[ge]月[yue]的[de]调[diao]查[cha],报[bao]告[gao]认[ren]定[ding]包[bao]括[kuo]苹[ping]果[guo]、亚[ya]马[ma]逊[xun]、谷[gu]歌[ge]和[he]Faceook在[zai]内[na]的[de]科[ke]技[ji]巨[ju]头[tou],在[zai]关[guan]键[jian]业[ye]务[wu]领[ling]域[yu]拥[yong]有[you]垄[long]断[duan]权[quan]dqo,滥[lan]用[yong]了[liao]其[qi]在[zai]市[shi]场[chang]上[shang]的[de]主[zhu]导[dao]地[di]位[wei]。

这[zhe]份[fen]调[diao]查[cha]报[bao]告[gao]是[shi]美[mei]国[guo]立[li]法[fa]者[zhe]制[zhi]定[ding]旨[zhi]在[zai]限[xian]制[zhi]科[ke]技[ji]巨[ju]头[tou]立[li]法[fa]提[ti]案[an]的[de]重[zhong]要[yao]基[ji]础[chu]。该[gai]报[bao]告[gao]将[jiang]进[jin]入[ru]小[xiao]组[zu]委[wei]员[yuan]会[hui]的[de]讨[tao]论[lun]并[bing]进[jin]行[xing]投[tou]票[piao],以[yi]通[tong]过[guo]最[zui]终[zhong]的[de]报[bao]告[gao]。目[mu]前[qian],美[mei]国[guo]司[si]法[fa]部[bu]和[he]联[lian]邦[bang]贸[mao]易[yi]委[wei]员[yuan]会[hui]的[de]反[fan]垄[long]断[duan]部[bu]门[men]也[ye]正[zheng]在[zai]加[jia]紧[jin]准[zhun]备[bei]针[zhen]对[dui]科[ke]技[ji]公[gong]司[si]提[ti]起[qi]的[de]诉[su]讼[song]。

美[mei]国[guo]众[zhong]议[yi]院[yuan]司[si]法[fa]委[wei]员[yuan]会[hui]反[fan]垄[long]断[duan]小[xiao]组[zu]的[de]工[gong]作[zuo]人[ren]员[yuan]在[zai]一[yi]份[fen]长[chang]达[da]页[ye]的[de]报[bao]告[gao]中[zhong]写[xie]道[dao]:有[you]大[da]量[liang]证[zheng]据[ju]表[biao]明[ming]这[zhe]些[xie]科[ke]技[ji]公[gong]司[si]的[de]反[fan]竞[jing]争[zheng]行[xing]为[wei]阻[zu]碍[ai]了[liao]创[chuang]新[xin],减[jian]少[shao]了[liao]消[xiao]费[fei]者[zhe]的[de]选[xuan]择[ze],必[bi]须[xu]限[xian]制[zhi]大[da]公[gong]司[si]的[de]这[zhe]种[zhong]权[quan]力[li],并[bing]使[shi]得[de]它[ta]们[men]接[jie]受[shou]适[shi]当[dang]的[de]监[jian]督[du]和[he]执[zhi]行[xing]。dqo

该[gai]委[wei]员[yuan]会[hui]律[lv]师[shi]表[biao]示[shi],在[zai]大[da]卫[wei]middo西[xi]西[xi]林[lin](David Cicillie)的[de]领[ling]导[dao]下[xia],反[fan]垄[long]断[duan]委[wei]员[yuan]会[hui]小[xiao]组[zu]从[cong]这[zhe]些[xie]公[gong]司[si]收[shou]集[ji]了[liao]超[chao]过[guo]万[wan]份[fen]文[wen]件[jian],并[bing]采[cai]访[fang]了[liao]学[xue]者[zhe],商[shang]业[ye]领[ling]袖[xiu]甚[shen]至[zhi]许[xu]多[duo]包[bao]括[kuo]《财[cai]富[fu]强[qiang]》在[zai]内[na]的[de]大[da]型[xing]科[ke]技[ji]公[gong]司[si]的[de]竞[jing]争[zheng]对[dui]手[shou]。

报[bao]告[gao]还[huai]提[ti]出[chu]了[liao]一[yi]些[xie]能[nen]够[gou]减[jian]少[shao]公[gong]司[si]主[zhu]导[dao]地[di]位[wei]的[de]建[jian]议[yi],包[bao]括[kuo]结[jie]构[gou]分[fen]离[li]dqo,比[bi]如[ru]强[qiang]迫[po]亚[ya]马[ma]逊[xun]等[deng]公[gong]司[si]不[bu]在[zai]其[qi]运[yun]营[ying]的[de]同[tong]一[yi]平[ping]台[tai]上[shang]参[can]与[yu]竞[jing]争[zheng],以[yi]及[ji]为[wei]反[fan]垄[long]断[duan]执[zhi]法[fa]机[ji]构[gou]提[ti]供[gong]新[xin]的[de]工[gong]具[ju]和[he]资[zi]金[jin]等[deng]。

报[bao]告[gao]还[huai]称[chen],科[ke]技[ji]巨[ju]头[tou]就[jiu]像[xiang]过[guo]去[qu]的[de]铁[tie]路[lu]大[da]亨[heng]和[he]电[dian]信[xin]巨[ju]头[tou]一[yi]样[yang],已[yi]经[jing]在[zai]重[zhong]要[yao]的[de]商[shang]业[ye]领[ling]域[yu],比[bi]如[ru]搜[sou]索[suo]引[yin]擎[qing]、应[ying]用[yong]商[shang]店[dian]和[he]社[she]交[jiao]媒[mei]体[ti]服[fu]务[wu]上[shang]积[ji]累[lei]了[liao]巨[ju]大[da]的[de]市[shi]场[chang]份[fen]额[e]。但[dan]与[yu]先[xian]前[qian]的[de]垄[long]断[duan]行[xing]业[ye]不[bu]同[tong]的[de]是[shi],高[gao]科[ke]技[ji]公[gong]司[si]成[cheng]功[gong]地[di]利[li]用[yong]它[ta]们[men]在[zai]某[mou]个[ge]业[ye]务[wu]领[ling]域[yu]中[zhong]积[ji]累[lei]的[de]数[shu]据[ju],为[wei]扩[kuo]展[zhan]到[dao]相[xiang]关[guan]业[ye]务[wu]领[ling]域[yu]获[huo]取[qu]巨[ju]大[da]的[de]优[you]势[shi]。

Eic Game创[chuang]始[shi]人[ren]蒂[di]姆[mu]middo斯[si]威[wei]尼[ni](Tim Sweeey)多[duo]次[ci]公[gong]开[kai]抨[peng]击[ji]苹[ping]果[guo]商[shang]城[cheng]收[shou]取[qu]分[fen]成[cheng]费[fei]是[shi]绝[jue]对[dui]的[de]垄[long]断[duan]dqo。他[ta]曾[zeng]在[zai]接[jie]受[shou]记[ji]者[zhe]采[cai]访[fang]时[shi]表[biao]示[shi]:通[tong]过[guo]对[dui]软[ruan]件[jian]发[fa]行[xing]和[he]变[bian]现[xian]的[de]绝[jue]对[dui]垄[long]断[duan],锁[suo]定[ding]并[bing]破[po]坏[huai]了[liao]生[sheng]态[tai]系[xi]统[tong]。大[da]平[ping]台[tai]把[ba]竞[jing]争[zheng]对[dui]手[shou]排[pai]除[chu]在[zai]他[ta]们[men]所[suo]保[bao]护[hu]的[de]业[ye]务[wu]之[zhi]外[wai],是[shi]为[wei]了[liao]防[fang]止[zhi]对[dui]其[qi]生[sheng]态[tai]体[ti]系[xi]造[zao]成[cheng]竞[jing]争[zheng]。dqo

斯[si]威[wei]尼[ni]的[de]表[biao]态[tai]也[ye]在[zai]美[mei]国[guo]国[guo]会[hui]反[fan]垄[long]断[duan]的[de]调[diao]查[cha]中[zhong]得[de]到[dao]验[yan]证[zheng]。调[diao]查[cha]显[xian]示[shi],谷[gu]歌[ge]使[shi]用[yong]其[qi]搜[sou]索[suo]产[chan]品[pin]找[zhao]出[chu]最[zui]受[shou]欢[huan]迎[ying]的[de]浏[liu]览[lan]器[qi],这[zhe]为[wei]他[ta]们[men]的[de]Chome浏[liu]览[lan]器[qi]策[ce]略[lue]提[ti]供[gong]了[liao]信[xin]息[xi],并[bing]使[shi]得[de]他[ta]们[men]能[nen]够[gou]获[huo]得[de]近[jin]乎[hu]完[wan]美[mei]dqo的[de]市[shi]场[chang]情[qing]报[bao]。

调[diao]查[cha]还[huai]称[chen], Faceook在[zai]社[she]交[jiao]网[wang]络[luo]市[shi]场[chang]上[shang]保[bao]持[chi]了[liao]近[jin]十[shi]年[nian]来[lai]无[wu]懈[xie]可[ke]击[ji]的[de]地[di]位[wei],并[bing]通[tong]过[guo]一[yi]系[xi]列[lie]旨[zhi]在[zai]消[xiao]除[chu]潜[qian]在[zai]竞[jing]争[zheng]对[dui]手[shou]的[de]有[you]针[zhen]对[dui]性[xing]的[de]收[shou]购[gou]来[lai]巩[gong]固[gu]了[liao]自[zi]己[ji]的[de]力[li]量[liang]。

不[bu]过[guo],对[dui]于[yu]这[zhe]份[fen]调[diao]查[cha]报[bao]告[gao],美[mei]国[guo]包[bao]括[kuo]谷[gu]歌[ge]、Faceook、亚[ya]马[ma]逊[xun]和[he]苹[ping]果[guo]公[gong]司[si]都[du]予[yu]以[yi]了[liao]回[hui]击[ji],并[bing]拒[ju]绝[jue]接[jie]受[shou]该[gai]委[wei]员[yuan]会[hui]的[de]建[jian]议[yi]。

谷[gu]歌[ge]在[zai]一[yi]份[fen]声[sheng]明[ming]中[zhong]说[shuo]:我[wo]们[men]在[zai]快[kuai]速[su]发[fa]展[zhan],竞[jing]争[zheng]激[ji]烈[lie]的[de]行[xing]业[ye]中[zhong]公[gong]平[ping]竞[jing]争[zheng]。我[wo]们[men]不[bu]同[tong]意[yi]这[zhe]份[fen]报[bao]告[gao],调[diao]查[cha]的[de]结[jie]论[lun]均[jun]来[lai]自[zi]商[shang]业[ye]竞[jing]争[zheng]对[dui]手[shou]关[guan]于[yu]搜[sou]索[suo]和[he]其[qi]他[ta]服[fu]务[wu]的[de]过[guo]时[shi]和[he]不[bu]准[zhun]确[que]的[de]指[zhi]控[kong]。dqo

Faceook也[ye]在[zai]一[yi]份[fen]声[sheng]明[ming]中[zhong]表[biao]示[shi]:Faceook是[shi]美[mei]国[guo]的[de]成[cheng]功[gong]故[gu]事[shi]。对[dui]Iagam和[he]WhaA的[de]收[shou]购[gou]之[zhi]所[suo]以[yi]成[cheng]功[gong],是[shi]因[yin]为[wei]Faceook在[zai]这[zhe]些[xie]业[ye]务[wu]上[shang]投[tou]资[zi]了[liao]数[shu]十[shi]亿[yi]美[mei]元[yuan]。无[wu]论[lun]是[shi]在[zai]收[shou]购[gou]时[shi]还[huai]是[shi]今[jin]天[tian],竞[jing]争[zheng]格[ge]局[ju]都[du]是[shi]存[cun]在[zai]的[de],但[dan]当[dang]时[shi]监[jian]管[guan]者[zhe]经[jing]过[guo]缜[zhen]密[mi]的[de]审[shen]查[cha]后[hou]没[mei]有[you]找[zhao]到[dao]任[ren]何[he]阻[zu]止[zhi]收[shou]购[gou]的[de]理[li]由[you]。dqo

苹[ping]果[guo]公[gong]司[si]称[chen]其[qi]在[zai]任[ren]何[he]业[ye]务[wu]部[bu]门[men]中[zhong]均[jun]未[wei]占[zhan]有[you]主[zhu]导[dao]市[shi]场[chang]份[fen]额[e]。该[gai]公[gong]司[si]表[biao]示[shi]:竞[jing]争[zheng]推[tui]动[dong]创[chuang]新[xin],而[er]创[chuang]新[xin]一[yi]直[zhi]是[shi]苹[ping]果[guo]公[gong]司[si]的[de]特[te]色[se]。我[wo]们[men]以[yi]安[an]全[quan]和[he]隐[yin]私[si]为[wei]核[he]心[xin],并[bing]将[jiang]继[ji]续[xu]这[zhe]样[yang]做[zuo]。dqo

亚[ya]马[ma]逊[xun]在[zai]博[bo]客[ke]文[wen]章[zhang]中[zhong]也[ye]大[da]肆[si]抨[peng]击[ji]了[liao]美[mei]国[guo]国[guo]会[hui]的[de]这[zhe]份[fen]调[diao]查[cha]报[bao]告[gao],称[chen]改[gai]报[bao]告[gao]是[shi]在[zai]自[zi]由[you]市[shi]场[chang]上[shang]的[de]误[wu]导[dao]性[xing]干[gan]预[yu]dqo。亚[ya]马[ma]逊[xun]的[de]博[bo]客[ke]文[wen]章[zhang]说[shuo]:大[da]型[xing]公[gong]司[si]并[bing]不[bu]占[zhan]主[zhu]导[dao]地[di]位[wei],并[bing]且[qie]认[ren]为[wei]成[cheng]功[gong]只[zhi]能[nen]来[lai]源[yuan]于[yu]反[fan]竞[jing]争[zheng]行[xing]为[wei]的[de]假[jia]设[she]是[shi]完[wan]全[quan]错[cuo]误[wu]的[de]。虽[sui]然[ran]我[wo]们[men]提[ti]供[gong]了[liao]大[da]量[liang]相[xiang]反[fan]的[de]证[zheng]据[ju],但[dan]这[zhe]些[xie]谬[miu]误[wu]仍[reng]然[ran]成[cheng]为[wei]反[fan]垄[long]断[duan]监[jian]管[guan]的[de]核[he]心[xin]内[na]容[rong]。dqo

原标题:

美国国会公布反垄断调查报告,认定苹果、谷歌等四大科技公司滥用市场主导地位

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